Lanaguage Research
Language Education Institute, Seoul National University

Gestural Properties of the Non-Target Velar Stop /k/ and Its Variance with Respect to Supralaryngeal Constrictions in C2

Minjung Son1,
*Corresponding Author : Associate Professor, Department of English Language & Literature (#218) Hannam University 70 Hannamro, Daedeok-Gu, Daejeon 34430, Korea, E-mail:

ⓒ Copyright 2019 Language Education Institute, Seoul National University. This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Received: Jun 30, 2019 ; Revised: Aug 12, 2019 ; Accepted: Aug 14, 2019

Published Online: Aug 31, 2019


In this study, we examine overlap-induced gestural properties in C1. Specifically, we examine the spatio-temporal properties of the non-target velar stop /k/ in Korean, as a function of three segmental contexts in C2 (pre-/h/, pre-/p/, and pre-/t/), two-boundary conditions, and two speech-rate conditions. The results show that gestural overlap with different supralaryngeal constrictions in C2 is positively correlated with the constriction duration of /k/, and is negatively correlated with the constriction maxima. Different constrictions in C2 distinctly affect the spatio-temporal properties of C1. The pre-/t/ context leads to distinct patterns in the C1 velar stop, compared to the pre-/h/ and pre-/p/ contexts. The pre-/t/ velar stops observed in most combinatoric phonological contexts have shorter constriction durations, and have greater constriction maxima for /k(#)t/. Greater constriction maxima is also observed for the within-word condition as well as for fast speech rate. The contradictory spatio-temporal properties of /k/ seem to be determined by physiological constraints on a consecutive lingual-lingual sequence, and by a higher jaw position facilitated by a coronal.

Keywords: normalized gestural overlap; gestural reduction; jaw height



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