Language Education

FLE 교육에서 자존감 효과 탐색

김은정 1 ,
En-Jung Kim 1 ,
Author Information & Copyright
1Seoul National University
Corresponding Author: 강사 불어교육과 서울대학교 사범대학 08826 서울시 관악구 관악로 1 E-mail:

ⓒ Copyright 2020 Language Education Institute, Seoul National University. This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Received: Nov 02, 2020 ; Revised: Dec 14, 2020 ; Accepted: Dec 30, 2020

Published Online: Dec 31, 2020


The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of “self-esteem,” which has not been highlighted in FLE education so far, as one of the emotions that must be considered for the development of effective communication competence. The study was done in two aspects: “building self-esteem” and “inducing communication motivation.” The meaning and function of emotions in foreign language education, as well as the concept of self-esteem at the center of discussion and its function were examined through the analysis of previous studies. Next, four self-esteem-building activities for use in French language classes were proposed, and research methods to explore their effects were discussed. The effects of these four self-esteem-building activities were comprehensively analyzed and examined in two aspects mentioned previously and the implications of the results for FLE education were reviewed. Finally, several proposals based on these implications were suggested.

Keywords: affect; communicative competence; self-esteem; self-esteem-building activities; communication motivation



노대규 (1995). "한국인의 비언어적 의사 표현 행위".『매지논총』, 13, 1-60 .


조규락, 이정미 (2015). "수업 중에 나타나는 학생의 비언어적 의사소통 행동에 대한 교사의 경험과 감정․정서 인식".『한국교원교육연구』, 32 (1), 89-118 .


Aden, J. (2013). De la langue en mouvement à la parole vivante: théâtre et didactique des langues. Langages 4 (192), 101-110 .


Aden, J. (2012). La médiation linguistique au fondement du sens partagé: vers un paradigme de l'énaction en didactique des langues. ÉLA, 3(167), 267-284 .


Argyle, M. (1988). Bodily communication. New York: International University .


Arnold, J. (2006). Comment les facteurs affectifs influencent-ils l'apprentissage d'une langue étrangère?. ÉLA. 4 (144), 407-425 .


Arnold, J. (1999). Affect in language learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press .


Aslım-Yetiş, V., & Elibol, H. (2017). L'estime de soi et l'apprentissage d'une langue étrangère: une étude avec des apprenants de FLE. Celal Bayar University Journal of Social Sciences/Celal Bayar Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi. 15(1), 331-348. DOI: 10.18026/cba yarsos.298094 .


Branden, N. (1969). The psychology of self-esteem. New York: Bantam .


Canfield, J., & H. Wells. (1994). 100 ways to enhance self-concept in the classroom. Boston: Allyn and Bacon .


Chastain, K. (1988). Developing second language skills: Theory and Practice (3th). U.S.A.: Hartcourt Brace Jovanovich .


Conseil de l'Europe. (2001). Cadre européen commun de référence pour les langues. Paris: Didier .


Coopersmith, S. (1967). The antecedents of self-esteem. San Francisco: Freeman & Co .


Cyrulnik, B. (2000). Les nourritures affectives. Paris: Odile Jacob .


Damasio, A. (2010). L'autre moi-même, Les nouvelles cartes du cerveau, de la conscience et des émotions. Paris: Odile Jacob, 2e édition .


Damasio, A. (2006). L'erreur de Descartes. Paris: Odile Jacob, 2e édition .


Damasio, A.(1994). Descartes' error: emotion, reason and the human brain. New York: Avon .


De Andrés, V. (1999). Self-esteem in the classroom or the metamorphosis of butterflies. dans Arnold, J. (Ed.). Affect in Language Learning: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press .


Dörnyei, Z., & A. Malderez. (1999). The role of group dynamics in foreign language learning and teaching. dans Arnold, J. (Ed.). Affect in Language Learning: Cambridge: Cambridge University Press .


Dodd, C. H. (1982). Dynamic of interculture communication. Dubugue: Wm. C. Brown Company Publisgers .


Fredickson, B. L. (2009). Positivity: Discover the upward spiral that will change your life. New York: Harmony .


Goldhaber, G. M. (1983). Organization communication. Dubugue: Wm. C. Brown Company Publishers .


Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., & Cope, J. A. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. The Modern Language Journal, 70, 125-132 .


James, W. (1983). The principles of psychology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, (Original work published 1890) .


Leathers, D. G. (1986). Successful nonverbal communication: Principles and applications. Boston: Allyn and Bacon .


Maslow, A. H. (1970). Motivation and personality(2nd ed). New York: Harper and Row .


McCroskey, J., & V. P. Richmond. (1990). Willingness to communicate: A cognitive view. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 5(2), 19-37 .


MacIntyre, P. D., Baker, S. C., Clément, R., & Donovan, L. A. (2002). Sex and age effects on willingness to communicate, anxiety, perceived competence, and L2 motivation among junior high school French immersion students. Language Learning, 52(3), 537-564 .


MacIntyre, P. D., Clément, R., Dörnyei, Z., & Noels, K. A. (1998). Conceptualizing willingness to communicate in an L2: A situational model of L2 confidence and affiliation. The Modern Language Journal, 82(4), 545-562 .


Messaoudi, A., & E.-J. Kim. (2020). Pourquoi et comment exprimer sa gratitude en classe de FLE ?. Les Langues Modernes, 2(114), 40-47 .


Munezero, M., Montero, C. S., Sutinen, E., & Pajunen, J. (2014). Are they different? Affect, feeling, emotion, sentiment, and opinion detection in Text. IEEE Transactions on Affective Computing, 5(2), 101-111 .


Murphey, T. (1998). Friends and classroom identity formation. IATEFL Issues 145, 15-16 .


Naouel, B. (2016). The role of foreign language learners' self-esteem in enhancing their oral performance. International Journal of Multi Disciplinary Research, 2(2), 195-204 .


Oatley, K., & J. Jenkins. (1996). Understanding emotions. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell .


Oxford, R. (1999). Anxiety and the language learner: New Insights. In J. Arnold (Ed.). Affect in language learning. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press .


Reasoner, R. (1992). You can bring hope to failing students. School Administrator, 92, 24 .


Rodríguez, J. I., Plax, T. G., & Kearney, P. (1996). Clarifying the relationship between teacher nonverbal immediacy and student cognitive learning: Affective learning as the central causal mediator. Communication Education, 45(4), 293-305. 03634529609379059 .


Rogers, C. (1975). Bringing together ideas and feelings in learning, dans D. A. Read y S. B. Simon (Eds). Humanistic education sourcebook. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall .


Rosenberg, M., & Simmons, R. G. (1971). Black and white self-esteem: The urban school child. American Sociological Association, Washington, DC RosMonograph series, 1-10 .


Rubio, F. (2007). Self-esteem and foreign language learning: An introduction. In F.Rubio (dir.). Self-esteem and foreig language learning (p.2-13). Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing .


Schumann, J. (1994). Where is cognition?. Studies in Second Language Acquisition 16, 231-242 .


Stevick, E.(1980). Teaching languages: A way and ways. Rowley. MA: Newbury House .


Schutz, P. A., & Laneheart, S. L. (2002). Introduction: Emotions in education. Educational Psychologist, 37(2), 67-68 .


Williams, M., & R. Burden. (1997). Psychology for language teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press .


Witt, P.L., & Wheeless, L. R. (2001). An experimental study of teachers' verbal and nonverbal immediacy and students' affective and cognitive learning. Communication Education, 50(4), 327-342 .


Yashima, T. (2002). Willingness to communicate in a second language: The Japanese EFL context. The Modern Language Journal, 86(1), 54-66 .