제 3언어 폐쇄음 산출에 대한 제 2언어 능숙도와언어 간 유형적 유사성 효과

오미라 1 ,
Mira Oh 1 ,
Author Information & Copyright
1Chonnam National University
Corresponding Author: 교수 영어영문학과 전남대학교 61186 광주광역시 북구 용봉로 77(용봉동) E-mail:

ⓒ Copyright 2024 Language Education Institute, Seoul National University. This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Received: Nov 06, 2023 ; Revised: Dec 16, 2023 ; Accepted: Jan 17, 2024

Published Online: Apr 30, 2024


This study examined L3 stops produced by two groups of L3 learners, KEJ speakers (L1 Korean/L2 English/L3 Japanese) and JEK speakers (L1 Japanese/L2 English/L3 Korean), with varying levels of L2 and L3 proficiency. The learners produced L2 and L3 stops in word-initial position, and the VOTs and F0 of their L3 stops were compared to those of monolingual speakers. This study had four main findings. First, JEK speakers produced native-like L3-Korean aspirated stops in terms of VOT when they are advanced L2 speakers. This is known as the positive L2 effect. Second, KEJ speakers proficient in both L2 and L3 produced native-like voiced and voiceless stops in L3-Japanese in terms of VOT. Third, the disparities in outcomes between JEK and KEJ speakers with respect to the L2 effect were due to the typological similarities between L1 and L2. Finally, both JEK and KEJ speakers produced native-like L3 stops in terms of F0 only after acquiring advanced proficiency in both L2 and L3. These findings suggest that the interaction between L2 and L3 proficiency levels and L1 and L2 typological similarities affects the production of L3 stops.

Keywords: Korean stops; English stops; Japanese stops; L3 stops; voice onset time; fundamental frequency; L2 effect; typological similarity



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