Semantics of '-e ha' for psych predicates in Korean

Bora Nam 1 ,
Author Information & Copyright
1Gyeongin National University of Education
Corresponding Author: Assistant Professor Department of English Education Gyeongin National University of Education 21044, Gyesanro 62 Gyeyanggu, Incheon, South Korea E-mail:

ⓒ Copyright 2024 Language Education Institute, Seoul National University. This is an Open-Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Received: Nov 03, 2023 ; Revised: Mar 22, 2023 ; Accepted: Apr 02, 2024

Published Online: Apr 30, 2024


This study examines the Korean evidential morpheme -e ha in to the context of psych predicates, addressing the gap in the systematic study of its role in subordinate clauses and its broader semantic implications. This study reveals that -e ha is necessary when there exists a mismatch between the experiencer and the logophor of the clause. This finding highlights the syntactic transformation of psych predicates from adjectives to verbs facilitated by -e ha, which semantically requires endophoric evidence. Considering these findings, the semantic structures of clauses with psych predicates and logophor shifts are discussed. Furthermore, proposed are the semantic denotations of -e ha and a zero morpheme within the framework of epistemic modals with the assumption that the zero morpheme is requisite for psych predicates wherein experiencer aligns with the logophor. These analyses and proposals have broader implications and offer a foundation for analyzing linguistic phenomena from a logophoric perspective.

Keywords: -e ha; evidentiality; psych predicate; logophor; modal



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